Fluorinated salt products mainly include cryolite and aluminum fluoride, which belong to the field of inorganic fluorinated chemicals and account for more than 95% of aluminum fluoride products. Cryolite is mainly used in the start-up phase of aluminum electrolysis, while aluminum fluoride is used in the daily production run of aluminum electrolysis.
The development of the aluminum industry raises ever-increasing demands on the fluoride salt industry in China. However, before 2000, China's fluoride salt industry was only a splurge in the country and was not competitive in the world. Today, China's fluoride industry has the right to speak at the international level.
This earth-shaking change is related to one company. This company's biggest contribution to the fluoride salt industry in China is that it changed the raw material route of the fluoride salt products, making the production of fluoride salts from eating resources into eating â€œscrapsâ€ and making the fluoride products have high added value. With low cost.
The name of the company is Fluorine Chemicals Co., Ltd.
A pair of contradictions once plagued the two industries for a long time. China's fluoride salt industry was established in parallel with the aluminum industry in the early 1950s. For a long time, the fluoride salt industry in China has produced hydrofluoric acid through the exploitation of fluorite, and then produced fluoride products such as cryolite and aluminum fluoride. However, fluorite resources are natural resources that cannot be recycled. As an important strategic resource for the development of the atomic energy industry, fluorite is limited by its reserves. Countries around the world have prepared it for protection, and some countries even import a lot of reserves. Starting in 2003, the state stipulated that no new fluorspar mining licenses would be issued, making the supply of fluorite resources increasingly tense. As a result, the further tension between fluorite and the development of fluoride industry has formed a contradiction.
At the same time, another issue is also plaguing people. During the "10th Five-Year Plan" period, China's output of phosphate fertilizer increased by nearly 70%, surpassing the United States for the first time in the world. The fluorosilicic acid, an unavoidable by-product of the production of phosphate fertilizers, also increased from 100,000 tons in 2000 to 330,000 tons in 2005, and is expected to increase to 500,000 tons in the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period. However, for a long time, the research and development level of fluorosilicic acid, a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer, has been very low in China, which not only caused a large waste of fluorine resources, but also caused the pollution of the fluorine contained in the by-product of phosphate fertilizer to the environment to be difficult to govern.
There is no connection between fluorite and fluorosilicic acid. It is understood that fluorite, also known as fluorspar, is the main source of fluorine in industry. The world's fluorite reserves are 623 million tons. Calculated on the basis of 50% fluorine, the amount of fluorine resources is 316 million tons; the world's apatite reserves are about 60 billion tons, the fluorine content in phosphate rock is about 3%, and the fluorine resource is about 1.8 billion. Tons; China's apatite reserves of about 15 billion tons, about 450 million tons of fluoride. Obviously, the associated fluorine resources in phosphate rock are far more abundant than those in fluorite. China's phosphate ore is mainly used for the production of phosphate fertilizer, in which the fluorine resources are wasted. So, can we use fluorosilicic acid, a byproduct produced in the production of phosphate fertilizers, as a substitute for fluorspar for fluoride salt production?
Many experts have found through research that this is a very feasible solution - the production of fluoride salt products after the desilication of phosphoric acid as a by-product of fluorosilicic acid, can save the non-renewable fluorite, used to produce higher value-added product.
This discovery inspired two industries, fluoride salt and phosphate fertilizer. In 1992, at the National Planned Workers' Conference, the former National Jixiu released the â€œDevelopment Strategy for Fluoride Saltsâ€, proposing to â€œcontrol the development of the fluorspar salt fluoride plant and strengthen the development and research of phosphate fertilizer by-productsâ€.
To this end, the country has invested 600 million yuan to import 6 fluoride salt product production lines from abroad, only to solve the issue of replacing fluorspar with fluorosilicic acid. However, up till now, only two of the six imported installations are still in operation, and the results are poor.
Once insiders analyzed that the process of replacing fluorspar by phosphate by-products is constrained by four factors:
One is the reason for the process. The production processes in various countries have been tested in China, and China has become a testing ground for foreign technology. Although these foreign technologies were very advanced at the time, domestic companies did not digest and absorb the innovative capabilities and basically did not localize them.
The second is equipment problems. Some companies can't find a suitable matching device even if the process is turned on.
Third, there is not enough awareness of environmental protection. Although it has been realized that by-product fluorosilicic acid in the production of phosphate fertilizers will have a certain impact on the environment, the environmental awareness is not strong enough. At that time, the country did not propose specific action plans to solve this problem from the top down. This indirectly caused the fluoride industry did not change the route of raw materials in time.
Fourth, institutional reasons. This is also a key constraint. Since the birth of China's fluoride salt industry, most of the production companies are branch factories of metallurgical enterprises and belong to non-ferrous metal systems. These "intra-system" companies can get preferential treatment on raw materials and other aspects. For example, aluminum hydroxide is used in the production of fluoride salts, and the unit price is the main factor affecting the cost of aluminum fluoride. In the non-ferrous metal system, aluminum hydroxide is implemented as a â€œprotection priceâ€ with a price of 740-760 yuan/ton (dry basis), while the price for â€œoutside the systemâ€ chemical companies is 1,550 yuan/ton. In this way, if the "outside the system" chemical companies produce fluoride salt products, the cost will reach 2,670 yuan / ton, and corporate profits will be reduced by half. One representative example is that since it was an â€œoutside systemâ€ enterprise, in the 1990s, the actual price of aluminum hydroxide used in the Guixi Chemical Fertilizer Plant was 1,855 yuan/ton. After deducting taxes, the company produced fluoride salts. Products not only fail to make profits, but also make losses. Because the industry's "protection measures" have "compressed" the competitiveness outside the market, this has led to "outside the system" of chemical companies that want to change production lines. At that time, there were six large phosphate fertilizer companies in China that were engaged in the use of phosphoric acid by-product fluorosilicic acid, but they did not use it as their main business.
These constraints made the domestic fluoride industry still had to follow the Soviet Union's production route with fluorite as raw material until the 1980s. The high cost and resource consumption of the domestic fluoride industry belonged to typical extensive industries, and they were always straight in the international market. Can not afford to waist.
One concept realizes "all roads lead to Rome"
However, a few years later, there was an â€œoutside-system enterpriseâ€ that had developed a roadmap for the development of a new type of fluorinated workers and achieved the largest in the world. This privately-owned company is located in Jiaozuo, Henan Province, China.
How can Fluoride stand out from the crowd? Naturally, it succeeded in opening up a variety of raw material routes.
In 1999, with the comprehensive utilization of the by-product fluorine resources of phosphate fertilizers, the company has successfully developed a production technology for the production of high-quality white carbon black from cryolite production of cryolite. This technology uses the phosphoric acid by-product sodium fluorosilicate as raw material to produce high molecular weight cryolite, which changes the traditional process of producing cryolite from fluorite as a raw material in China for decades. It not only opened up a new source of fluorine resources, but also solved long-term problems. It also restricted the "three wastes" pollution problem in the development of China's phosphate fertilizer industry, and at the same time saved the national strategic resource fluorite. This technology was therefore rated by the former State Development Planning Commission as a "National High-tech Industrialization Demonstration Project" and given 8 million yuan of treasury bond funds. In 2005, the company relied on this technology capital to undertake external design and development of a series of comprehensive utilization of fluorine resources, and achieved external output and transformation of the company's technological achievements. In 2006, the company's comprehensive utilization of fluorine resources was included in the 2007 project of saving resources and environmental protection bonds, and received 4.8 million yuan in treasury bonds.
This technology has caused quite a stir in the domestic and foreign counterparts. Because this technology has achieved a number of breakthroughs: First, it opened up a new source of fluoride resources, which can save 30,000 tons of quality fluorspar per year for the country; second, the project achieves comprehensive utilization effect, from the perspective of the The industry has promoted the healthy and sustainable development of phosphate fertilizer companies. Third, it has promoted the technological progress of the electrolytic aluminum industry. Fourth, it has achieved new breakthroughs in the production technology of China's precipitated white carbon blacks, with significant benefits.
Then, the Fluoride company has successfully developed a new technology for the production of fluoride salts from the production of by-products of aluminum fluoroaluminate using aluminum profiles. Ammonium fluoroaluminate is also a "waste" for industry headaches. Since the birth of the aluminum industry in China, its by-product ammonium fluoroaluminate has been considered as an industrial waste to be thrown away. However, many scientific and technical personnel of the Fluoride company converted this waste into a high-quality cryolite product through numerous experiments and studies. In addition, Duoduduo Company has successfully researched and developed new cryolite production technologies with independent intellectual property rights, such as sodium fluorosilicate method, ammonium ammonium fluoroaluminate method, and clay salt brine method, which can produce high, medium, and low molecular ratios. The chemical composition and 9 types of cryolite products in different physical forms such as powder, sand, and granular form have established the leading position of China's fluoride industry in the field of inorganic fluorine chemicals in the world. At present, the company has a variety of patented technologies and methods for the production of fluoride salts, which can be described as â€œall roads lead to Romeâ€, which reduces the cost per ton of fluoride salt production by 10% compared with the industry.
In the words of industry insiders, the companyâ€™s philosophy of â€œfinding its fluorine resources to the endâ€ has opened the door to markets that others have not yet paid attention to, or have previously ignored.
What kind of mental success can we achieve in the world?
Those who come into contact with Too many companies can strongly feel that the most prominent feature of this company is "love drumstick" - constantly engage in technological innovation. As long as there is a new innovation, the company will have a series of arguments. Whatever original technology, integrated innovation, digestion and absorption, and innovation... Any mature technology, to this enterprise, it will also have to be transformed. In recent years, Duoduduo Company has eliminated the middle and low-end dry and wet aluminum fluoride production lines used by other companies, and successfully developed the aluminum fluoride/aluminum fluoride process; anhydrous aluminum fluoride products Appearance has promoted the technological progress of the electrolytic aluminum industry, and has also made it possible for aluminum alloy products to be applied to wider, deeper, and higher fields. The 60,000-ton/year anhydrous aluminum fluoride production workshop of the Fluoride Company has only 60 workers. The annual production value reaches 600 million yuan, and the labor productivity per capita reaches 10 million yuan.
Over the past few years, after scientists and technicians have continuously â€œdrummedâ€, the companyâ€™s leading products, cryolite, and aluminum fluoride have become state-level new products, and the level of anhydrous aluminum fluoride technology is the worldâ€™s leading. Among the more than 70 patents applied for and authorized by the company, most of them have already been industrialized; among the four national standards for domestic fluoride products, the company has revised and revised 3 by hosting and has participated in the revision of 1; National standard samples of cryolite and aluminum fluoride were developed to fill the domestic gap. Under the entrustment of the China National Standardization Committee and the National Non-ferrous Metals Standardization Technical Committee, Duoduduo Company is applying to IS0/TC226 (the International Standardization Committee for Raw Materials for Aluminum Production) to apply the standard and standardization of cryolite and aluminum fluoride formulated by the company. The method was identified as an international standard and method.
At present, the company has become the world's largest fluoride manufacturer. In 2006, the companyâ€™s export earnings reached US$13.08 million; in 2007, it earned US$47.63 million. The company's fluoride production and sales volume is the largest in the world, and its export volume ranks first in the country. Its products are sold in more than 20 countries on five continents. At present, the proportion of domestic and foreign sales of fluoride products has accounted for 50%, and the main customers are large-scale electrolytic aluminum companies at home and abroad. The company's cryolite products have a domestic market share of 45% and a global market share of 35%. The proportion of macromolecules in the company of Fluoride Corporation has accounted for 80% of the sales volume of cryolite compared with cryolite, and it is the world's largest producer of polymer-rich cryolite.
Zhou Zhengyu, a senior expert in fluorine technology design in China, said: â€œOur country's fluoride salt equipment was imported from the Soviet Union. For 40 years, no one has raised any objections and no one else dares to move elsewhere. You Lao Li ( Li Shijiang, Chairman of the Fluoride Corporation, was bold and unrecognizable in Jiaozuo. However, the fluoridation of Duo Duo was successful and changed scientifically. This is the reason why Duo Duo Duo has grown relatively rapidly in recent years."
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