The amalgamation process is an ancient gold extraction process that is both simple and economical and is suitable for the recovery of coarse-grained monomer gold. This method is still used in many gold mines in China. With the development of gold production and the advancement of science and technology, the gold extraction process of amalgamation has been continuously improved and improved. Due to the increasingly strict environmental protection requirements, some mines have eliminated the amalgamation operation and replaced them with gold extraction processes such as re-election, flotation and cyanidation.
In the gold production, the amalgamation process still has an important role in the gold extraction process, and there are application examples at home and abroad. At present, many gold mines such as Zhangjiakou in Hebei, Erdaogou in Liaoning, Jiapigou in Jilin, and Weinan in Shandong have applied this technology. The Erdaogou gold deposit in Liaoning was originally a single flotation process. According to the ore property, the combined process of amalgamation and flotation was changed. The total recovery rate was increased by 7.81% (the recovery rate of amalgamation was 64.6%) and the grade of tailings was 0.74g/t. It dropped to 0.32g/t and the annual benefit was 1.58 million yuan. The key to the amalgamation process is how to take protective measures to eliminate mercury pollution.
2. Cyanide gold extraction process
The cyanidation gold extraction process is the main method for extracting gold from ores or concentrates. The cyanidation gold extraction process includes: cyanide leaching, washing and leaching of the leaching slurry, extraction of gold from cyanide or cyanide pulp, and smelting of the finished product. Gold mines conventional plant of basic cyanide gold extraction process using two types, one is based on gold extraction process thickener continuous countercurrent washing, recovery of gold cementation with zinc powder, a so-called conventional cyanidation (CCD method and CCF The other method is a non-filtered cyanide carbon slurry process (CIP method and CIL method) which does not require filtration and washing, and uses activated carbon to directly adsorb gold from cyanide pulp.
The conventional cyanidation gold extraction process is divided into two types according to the treatment materials: one is a cyanide plant that processes flotation gold concentrate or treats amalgam and re-selects tailings. Most of the processes used are large state-owned mines. Such as Hebei Jinchangyu; Liaoning Wulong, Henan Yangzhaitun; Shandong Zhaoyuan, Xincheng, Jiaojia, Sanshandao gold mine. The other is to treat muddy oxidized ore, using a full mud mixing cyanide gold extraction plant. Such as Jilin trench; Anhui Xinqiao mine gold silver ore; Heilongjiang unity ditch.
China began to use the cyanidation process to raise gold in the early 1930s. During the period from 1936 to 1938, the Jinguashi Gold Mine in Taiwan used gold cyanide-zinc powder replacement process to extract gold, with an annual output of 150,000 gold.
After entering the 1960s, in order to adapt to the development of the national economy, vigorously develop the production of mineral gold. In some mines, intermittent mechanical agitation cyanide gold extraction process and continuous stirring cyanide gold extraction process were used to replace the percolation cyanidation method. Gold extraction process. In 1967, firstly, in the Zhaoyuan Gold Mine Lingshan and Linglong Gold Exchange Plant in Shandong, the continuous mechanical agitation cyanidation process was used to produce gold. The gold extraction by cyanidation method was increased from 70% to 93.23%. From then on, continuous mechanical agitation cyanide gold extraction process The major gold mines across the country were quickly promoted. In 1970, the Jinchangyu Gold Mine and the Wulong Gold Mine Cyanide Plant were completed and put into operation in 1977. Since then, a number of mechanically stirred cyanide plants have been completed and put into operation in China. The cyanidation process has entered a new stage of development.
The continuous development of gold production and the rapid development of gold resources have increased the amount of argillaceous gold-bearing oxidized ore from the 1980s, and developed a study on the full-cyanide agitation of such ore, and in the united ditch of Heilongjiang. The gold mine built a cyanide plant that processes 500 tons of ore per day and put it into production in 1983. Since then, the whole mud cyanidation process has been gradually promoted and applied. It has been used in Henan, Jilin, Hebei, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia and other places to build factories to raise gold. At the same time, in order to solve the difficulty of muddy oxidized ore in dense filtration solid-liquid separation, in November 1979, the Changchun Gold Research Institute began to use the unfiltered carbon slurry gold extraction process for the ore of the Tuanjiegou gold mine. The two-year experimental study has been successful. On this basis, in August 1984, the Linghu Gold Mine in Henan Province designed and utilized domestically produced equipment to build China's first carbon slurry gold extraction plant that processes 50t ore per day. The process of gold extraction in China's cyanidation process has taken a big step forward. The carbon slurry extraction process has become one of the important methods for the treatment of gold and gold mines for the treatment of muddy oxidized ore. Since then, the charcoal pulp gold extraction plant has been built in Jilin, Henan, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. At the end of 1984, the Gold Bureau of the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry promoted the application of the carbon extracting process in China, transplanted and digested foreign advanced technology and equipment, and cooperated with the United States David McGee in the Xiqiao Gold Mine of Shaanxi Province and Zhangjiakou of Hebei Province. In the gold mine, a carbon leaching gold plant with a daily processing ore of 250t (Xi'an) and a 450t (Zhangjiakou) was built. According to the survey, the Zhangjiakou gold mine reached 93.54% (the recovery rate of carbon slurry in 1988 was 90.25%).
Relying on scientific research and technological innovation, the level of gold production technology in China has been greatly improved. For example, in the Jinchangyu gold mine, zinc powder was used instead of zinc wire to replace the gold mud, so the replacement rate reached 99.89%, the gold grade of gold mud increased significantly, and the zinc consumption decreased from 2.2kg/t to 0.6kg/t. Production costs have been greatly reduced. It has also achieved remarkable results in the promotion and application of mines in Zhaoyuan, Jiaojia, Xincheng and Wulong. The heap leaching process of low-grade oxidized ore has been promoted and applied in Henan, Hebei, Liaoning, Yunnan, Hubei, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Shaanxi and other provinces after the successful trial of the Danshan Hushan gold mine. The economic effect is obvious and low. The development and utilization of grade oxidized minerals has opened the way. According to incomplete statistics, China's current production using heap leaching gold output reached more than million ounces (heap leach gold production in Henan Province took two cumulative 13 000), but compared with developed countries, China's small-scale heap leaching, is generally 1 Ã— 103 ~ 3 Ã— 103t / stack, Wan t / stack is less, there is a big gap in the art, Shaanxi Taibai SHUANGWANG 1988-ton large gold heap leaching field production, and achieved gratifying results (ore grade of 1.5g / t).
The introduction of advanced foreign technologies and equipment (such as the US high-efficiency thickener, double spiral mixing tank leaching, Japan's Mars pump, belt filters, etc.), so that China's gold production, there has been on the level of equipment and technology to a higher level the increase, but also to promote China's gold production equipment to high efficiency, energy saving, large-scale, automated direction. In the scientific research of new processes such as thiourea gold extraction, thiosulfate gold extraction, pre-oxidation bacteria leaching, pressure catalytic leaching, and resin adsorption, new progress has been made in recent years. In 1979, the Changchun Gold Research Institute successfully carried out the thiourea gold extraction test.
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